When handling powdered latex, a mask and protective gloves are the bare minimum.Um.... what equipment should I have been using when handling latex?
Leaving aside the allergy problems, latex powder is extremely irritating to skin and mucous membranes. It can inflame your hands, even if you're not allergic, so you want protective gloves. Personally, I prefer ones of at least elbow length. However, inhaling latex could seriously hurt most people, so the face mask is essential. Even a bit of the powder in the eyes can cause a lot of pain, if not permanent damage if things go really bad.
If you've ever worked in a factory with a lot of latex products, you'll see this is pretty standard PPE. The MSDS for liquid latex is similar: it requires a respirator and protective gloves, as well as requiring a well ventilated area. That's just the standard stuff off the safety sheets, if there is a known issue I'd definitely up the PPE. Otherwise, by US law, those are the minimum requirements to handle latex safely.